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Pay Less Tax Part 1- Buying Assets In A Trust

Pay Less Tax Part 1- Buying Assets In A Trust

I have decided to start a series of posts that will detail some of my methods of minimising the amount of tax you have to pay. Some of these techniques will apply to the way you invest but there will also be tips for people who are not at the investing stage just yet. And I’ll preface this post by stating very clearly

There is no legal way to pay no tax at all

Yes, you can negative gear your pants off but I’m not the biggest fan of that method. The idea is to minimise the amount of tax you pay by utilising legal methods. I love Australia and don’t have any problems paying my taxes to keep this awesome country running…BUT! That doesn’t mean I’m going to be donating extra money because lets be honest, sometimes the government doesn’t spend the tax payers money in the most efficient of ways…BB-WalkingDog


Paying Taxes

Just like income tax you pay on your wages, you have to pay tax on the income produced by your assets and also the capital gain IF you sell the asset and realise the gain (more or that later). Income produced by an asset that’s in your name is added on to your regular salary income and is taxed accordingly. Below is the ATO tax rates for 2015-16

Taxable income Tax on this income
0 – $18,200 Nil
$18,201 – $37,000 19c for each $1 over $18,200
$37,001 – $80,000 $3,572 plus 32.5c for each $1 over $37,000
$80,001 – $180,000 $17,547 plus 37c for each $1 over $80,000
$180,001 and over $54,547 plus 45c for each $1 over $180,000


Lets say you have have an investment property that is earning you $20K from rent after all expenses including depreciation (that some serious cash flow!) and your normal 9-5 job earns you a salary of $65K. In this situation the ATO look at your income and conclude that you earn $85K and tax you accordingly.
Below is a break down on the taxes you pay on the extra $20K income produced by your investment property

15,000 * 32.5% = $4,875 PLUS 5,000 * 37% = $1,859

The last $5,000 dollars you earned were taxed at a higher rate of 37c for each dollar because you went over the $80K threshold.



Buying With Your Partner

Now lets assume that you’re buying that asset with your partner and you are each allocated 50% ownership of the asset. Your partner only works 2 days a week and earn $12K yearly.

Now the ATO look at your taxes very differently.

Because you only have 50% ownership of the asset you only earn 50% of it’s income, which equals $10K. This $10K is added onto your income which gives you a grand total of $75K. Your partner is given the other 50% which brings their income up to $22K. Now this is where the tax savings come in. The $10K that was distributed to you was taxed at a rate of 32.5c for every dollar.This equals 10,000 * 32.5% = $3,250 in taxes paid to the ATO. Your partner however is very different. They only earn $12K which is too low to be taxed at all. Adding the $10K bring them up to $22K. They have to pay 19c for every dollar they earn over $18,200. $22,000 – $18,200 = $3,800 dollars.
$3,800 * 19% = $722. The total tax you paid on the $20K as a couple is now $3,250 + $722 = $3,972

Simply buying with your partner in this scenario will save $2,753 in taxes every year for this couple. If they have the property for 30 years the money they would save would eaqual =


If you think that’s impressive, wait until I show you how trusts work


Buying Assets In A Trust

There are actually a few different sorts of Trust that you can set up for different reasons. I’m only going to be talking about discretionary trusts (Family trusts) as that is the vehicle I’m currently using and what I have experience in.

What is a trust anyway?

A discretionary trust is a trust relationship where by the trustee is obligated to hold assets for the benefit of the beneficiaries of the trust. This obligation is defined in the trust deed which the trustee must enter into. It’s basically a written agreement on how assets are held and distributed among the people that that should get them.
You need the following to set up a trust:

The Settlor

The person that creates the trust . Usually is someone who will have no more involvement after the trust is set up. I used my accountant as the Settlor for my trust.

The Trustee

The legal entity that owns all assets held in the trust. This can be a person OR a company. Yes that’s right. A company can be the trustee of a trust. Now why would you want a company being the legal owner of assets?

Because this is how you achieve asset protection!

If you buy in your own name and for what ever reason go bankrupt. The creditors have full access to anything that you own to get their money back. But what if you don’t actually own any assets but simply control them? What you can do is set up a company and be the only shareholder of it so you have complete control of it’s decisions. You then set up a trust and have the company be the trustee of the trust.
The company is now liable for the assets held within the trust and not you!

If something goes belly up the creditors will have access to all assets that the company owns including all assets within the trust but not outside of it. This makes sense when you think about too. If you invest in a company that goes bust, you’re going to lose your shares most likely but the creditors are not going to try to recoup their loss from the shareholders personal assets. That would be illegal.

And it works both ways too. If you were personally sued and lost the case. They could not go after any assets held within the trust because technically you don’t own them. The company does upon which you are simply a share holder of 🙂 . I plan to have multiple trusts set-up eventually to limit the losses if something went drastically wrong in one of them.

The Appointor

The person who appoints the trustee of the trust. Has the power to remove a trustee and appoint another one. Needed in case the current trustee dies or doesn’t want to be trustee any more.

The Beneficiaries

The beneficiaries are the entities that benefit from the trust in forms of distributions.


The real magic of the trust is its ability to distribute income to multiple beneficiaries at the most efficient rate that suits for that financial year. Lets say that the trust earns $40K. This can be from rent income or capital gains. The Trust has the ability to choose where to distribute this income to. If you lost your job one year and didn’t earn anything. The trust could distribute you $18,200 dollars and you wouldn’t pay any tax on it. You can distribute income to your children but it won’t be tax free money, there are special tax rates for individuals under 18 who receive money from a trust. Back in the day there was a loop hole where by trust’s could distribute money up to the tax free threshold for minors and get away with it. You can’t do this any more.
If you still have income left over in the trust after your have distributed most of it to the beneficiaries in a tax effective manner there is another beneficiary that you can distribute to whose tax rate never changes no matter how much they earn. That is another company. You can actually distribute income to another company whose tax rate is locked at 30%.

This is massive.

Slight mistake about the below guys. As Adam from the comments pointed out to me, companies are not eligible for the 50% CGT discount. So I have changed my example to use income produced by the assets instead of capital gains.


Lets say you buy a house for $60K in 1980 and sell it 30 years later for $660K. That’s a capital gain of $600K. If you were to sell that house and trigger capital gains tax you could be paying north of $135,000 dollars in tax (assuming you received the 50% CGT discount).

Lets say you buy a house for $60K in 1980 and over the next 40 years it produces $300K in cash flow after all deductions and losses ($7.5K positively gears per year)


For simplicity I have left out a bunch of things here but we are trying to keep it as straight forward as possible so it’s easy to follow. The CGT discount means you are only paying tax on half the amount, which equals $300K. $300K taxed at 45c (assuming that the surplus of money is tax at the highest rate) to the dollar equals $135,000 of tax to the ATO…OUCH. Even if you buy with your spouse, because it is such a big capital gain you are most likely going to hit the highest threshold of 45c to the dollar for most of it.
If you had bought that asset in a trust however, you would have the ability to distribute portions of that capital gains income stream to multiple people and to a company which is taxed at 30%. Lets say both you and your partner are currently at the 32.5c threshold and you have no children. It would be more strategically advantageous to distribute the whole $300K to a company at 30c to the dollar which would turn out to be $90K instead of $135K.

That’s a $45K saving in tax by simply having the asset in a trust. 

And the more you earn, the greater the savings are going to be. Income redirection along with asset protection is the reason I utilise this method. It gives me flexibility and security of my assets. I have used the above examples with properties but the trust works the same for shares.

Downsides Of A Trust

While I have painted a picture of milk and honey for trusts there are some disadvantages

  •  You cannot receive the main residency capital gains exemption tax which basically is when you sell your own home and don’t pay capital gains on it. This can be a strategy for investor who live in an investment for one year before selling to avoid CGT. You cannot do this with a trust.
  • There are costs associated with setting up a trust and company and running them. It cost me $1500 to have a trust and company professionally set-up. You can do it yourself for around $600 bucks but I don’t think it’s worth it in case you stuff something up. It’s $200 a year to register the company and an extra $300 bucks a year my accountant charges for doing the accounting for the company and trust which are slightly more complicated than a normal tax return. Considering the advantages I have outlined above it was a no brainer for me to pay a little extra now and set it up right to reap the benefits in the years to come.
  • You cannot negative gear in this structure. You cannot distribute a loss. You can carry it forward and offset any future gains but you can’t offset your personal income through a trust. This doesn’t really bother me because I don’t plan to negative gear when I buy assets. They might be slightly negative when I buy them but turn positive after 1 or 2 rental increases over time.

I hope you have gained a little more knowledge by reading this post. Investing through a trust is not for everyone or every strategy. But knowing it exist is beneficial in case you ever feel you could take advantage of it. I bought my first IP in my own name when I had no idea about trusts or how they worked. Unfortunately transferring an IP from your personal name to a trust will trigger CGT (if any has occurred) and you will be up for stamp duty again. For this reason I will keep my first IP in my own name. I planned to buy all future IP’s in the trust I have set up. I will be paying slightly more upfront costs this way (running the trust) but will hope to reap huge benefits down the track.

If you have a better way to buy assets I’d love to hear about it in the comment section below as I’m always looking to do things better learning from people smarter than myself

25 Responses to Pay Less Tax Part 1- Buying Assets In A Trust

  1. Hey nice writeup – great food for thought. Could you please explain, if you have a second company as a trust beneficiary to absorb income taxed over 30%, what is required to put that money back into the trust for future investments? Can the company “give” the money to the trust without incurring expenses?

    • Great question Tony.

      My understanding of this is the business can loan the trust the money. Since you control the business you can loan this money at 0% interest. If the business received $5K from the trust after all tax has been paid, the business could then ‘loan’ the trust $5K and that money would now sit in the trust for further investing. I will double check with my accountant about this though because my knowledge on this subject comes from the fantastic book called trust magic by Dale Gatherum-Goss but the copy I have was from 2009.
      You can still defiantly do it as I have discussed this strategy with my accountant before we set up the trust but as to how it is done from an accountants point of view may have changed slightly.
      I’m quite a while away from my trust generating positive income so I have never had to do this part yet but it’s always good to think ahead. If investing in trust interest you I highly recommend that book. HEAPS of cool stuff that I didn’t mention in my article in that book.


      • Big watchout on distributing from a trust without actually shifting assets, especially to corporate beneficiaries! The related party rules may apply here, and you should definitely talk to your accountant about how Div7a applies in this case.
        If your accountant is suggesting setting up an interest free loan from a company without covering off the Div7a impacts they are a bad accountant and you should go talk to someone else.
        To directly quote the ATO: “Division 7A also contains provisions (Subdivision EA) which are designed to ensure that a trustee cannot shelter trust income at the prevailing company tax rate by creating a present entitlement to a private company without paying it”.
        If you feel like doing your own research I strongly recommend googling the “Division 7A – Trust amounts treated as dividends – Loans” fact sheet on the ATO website. There is a lot of legal-ese there but worth a shot if you think you’re up to it.

        • Hi Brian,

          Thanks for the link, you sound like you know what you’re talking about so I’ll defiantly be taking a look and get back to you.

          I have not actually set up the second ‘bucket’ company to receive the lower taxed threshold and probably won’t need to for a number of years.

          Who knows though, when the time comes the rules may have changed. But if I’m certain about one thing, it’s wealthy people bending the rules to become richer. And the vast majority of wealthy people own trusts.

          So I’m quiet confident that when the time comes, there will be another clever strategy I can utilize to withdraw my income at a tax effective rate.

          But then again…who knows right?

  2. So am i correct in understanding that businesses are also eligible for the 50% CGT discount, so effectively if the business has held the asset for more than a year you only pay 15% tax?

    • Hi Michael,

      Assets held in a trust are eligible for the 50% CGT discount

      Just FYI, a business is different from a company but I’m assuming you mean company because that’s what i refer to in the article.

      The 50% CGT discount is applied to the overall gain first. So if you had a $500K gain you would only be taxed for $250K. That $250K would then be taxed at the tax rate of whichever beneficiary you choose which in most cases the company rate of 30% is most efficient.

      So to answer your question, companies are NOT entitled to the 50% CGT but Trusts are. The business/company is not holding the asset, the trust is. The company is just a trustee of the trust.

      Hope this clears things up.

  3. Great article, thanks. I have a modest stock portfolio at the moment and I don’t think it’s worthwhile to put money into setting up a trust for myself yet. I do plan to further down the track. Is there some kind of overall net worth you would recommend doing so? e.g. $100k onwards?

    • I actually bought my first IP outside my trust before I knew the benefits. For me to transfer it to the trust would trigger CGT and I would have to pay stamp duty, legal fees etc. all over again. You would have to do the same with your stocks (not the stamp duty but the CGT) so depending on how much you already have it may not be worth it.

      The most effective way this can work is by setting it up correctly at the very start. You may want to create this structure and start a new portfolio in there from scratch and keep you current one out of there. If you could simply transfer ownership from you own name to the trust without triggering costs I would say go for it but unfortunately that’s not the case.

      Speak to an accountant to work out the costs make you decision from there.

  4. Good article, nice to find an Aussie FIRE blog.

    2 things, firstly for asset protection in the trust yes the company trustee is the way to go, but you should not be the shareholder. If you went bankrupt, these shares would be taken by the bankruptcy trustee and he would then become director and have full control of the assets of the trust and then distribute the assets out to creditors. I’ve seen this exact situation happen recently. Solution – you are the director of the trustee company and run the trust, but the shareholder is a low risk individual, for example a stay at home spouse. If any threat comes from that end you can also change the trustee. It’s often also recommended that the at-risk individual not be the sole director or appointor either… This might be being overly cautious though.

    Secondly, capital gains in the trust are eligible for CGT discount… But when streaming discounted capitals gains to beneficiaries, the gains are grossed up in their hands, any applicable losses applied, then the discount is reapplied if eligible. What this means is that discounted gains streamed to company beneficiaries lose their discounted status as companys are not eligible for the 50% CGT discount. Which is damn annoying as I have my investments set up in a trust much the same as you.

    Still, can’t have your cake and eat it too, and trusts are a great idea for investment purposes, mainly for the asset protection. The tax planning side is just the icing on the cake.

    • nice to find an Aussie FIRE blog

      Thanks 🙂

      firstly for asset protection in the trust yes the company trustee is the way to go, but you should not be the shareholder. If you went bankrupt, these shares would be taken by the bankruptcy trustee and he would then become director and have full control of the assets of the trust and then distribute the assets out to creditors. I’ve seen this exact situation happen recently. Solution – you are the director of the trustee company and run the trust, but the shareholder is a low risk individual, for example a stay at home spouse. If any threat comes from that end you can also change the trustee. It’s often also recommended that the at-risk individual not be the sole director or appointor either… This might be being overly cautious though

      Very interesting.

      Is it likely that the individual will go bankrupt in this situation though? Think about it, the whole trust structuring is designed so you as the individual own nothing including the debt associated with these properties but simply control them (by being the director of the trustee company). The trust may very well go bust but the individual is protected here because they are simply a shareholder in a company that controls assets. If the trust was to go bust then I would more than expect the lenders to have complete control over whatever is left in the trust, that’s fair enough too. One way you could get around this would be to have two trusts. If one goes bust then at least the other one is protected right? Just I thought anyway.

      Secondly, capital gains in the trust are eligible for CGT discount… But when streaming discounted capitals gains to beneficiaries, the gains are grossed up in their hands, any applicable losses applied, then the discount is reapplied if eligible. What this means is that discounted gains streamed to company beneficiaries lose their discounted status as companys are not eligible for the 50% CGT discount. Which is damn annoying as I have my investments set up in a trust much the same as you.

      Bro! I just spent the last hour reading and you sir are 100% correct!

      BUMMER! It still works out better for income though since there is no capital gains discount. So basically when you start to generate some serious cash flow in the trust, unless you earn under $80K (or whatever the threshold is) you’re better distributing the income to a company right?

      Thanks for the correction mate! This is why I put my stuff out there, so smart people like you can help me 🙂


      • Well the whole point of an asset holding trust is to protect the assets held in it, so if the individual goes bankrupt, the idea is that the trust is protected. So it needs to be set up correctly.

        You are definitely correct that if a trust goes bankrupt, you are safe from any claim if the trustee is a company. However this is more of an issue if it’s a trading trust which runs a business. Not so much if you are holding financial assets in the trust. If it’s properties with loans on them, you will likely have to sign a personal guarantee on the loan anyway as the banks aren’t that stupid! So the trust doesn’t protect you there, but that’s why you would only hold the directorship not the full control or ownership of the trusts or company trustees so problems in one trust can’t have a domino effect on other trusts.

        In the situation I described before, the guy went bankrupt due to a business problem involving a personal guarantee. He then lost his other assets due to not structuring the asset holding trust correctly.

        Even worse, he had a bunch of different assets in that trust, shares and properties. Like you said, it’s always a good idea to put each separate property asset in its own trust. Keep them separate, keep them safe. And shares in a different trust also.

        For the CGT, yeah it does suck that you can’t send discount gains to company beneficiaries. However as you say, you can stream income and non-discount gains to a company for the lower tax rate, while streaming discount gains to individuals.

        • Everything you said made total sense! Are you an accountant by any chance?

          Thanks for the tips mate, much appreciated! I’ll be looking over my structure with my accountant to make sure we have all this covered 🙂

  5. I’m just old so I’ve seen a lot 🙂 All that stuff is worst case scenario, but plan for the worst hope for the best haha.

    Wish I’d found out about FIRE when I was a lot younger.

    • Hi Adam, Firebug,

      Great information! Keep it coming! I’m definitely going to check out the book recommendation!

      I bought my first IP through a trust with corporate trustee, but now FIRE is a priority (Adam-ditto, wish I knew about it when I was younger!), would welcome advice on how to minimise the risk and/or downside going forward.

      Do you think using the one trust vehicle for all investments is a short-sighted mistake? Would you recommend a trust for each property and another for shares/ETFs?

      Do you know if you can have multiple trusts with the same corporate trustee? This would minimise set up costs.

      Also, can you distribute the surplus to the same corporate trustee, or would you need a new Pty Ltd to distribute to to take advantage of the 30% tax rate. Again, having just the one Pty Ltd would minimise set up costs?



      • Hi Niv,

        Glad you’re enjoying the blog 🙂

        I know some people who set up a trust for each IP but to me, that’s overkill and a little too cautious. It’s a personal decision.

        You’re not going to get any more tax benefits. The only thing it protects you against is losing everything that that trust owns.

        So if you split your wealth across two different trusts, you’re more protected. But I’m cool with one for now. Maybe if I got up to a few mil I’d considering starting another but it’s a personal decision.

        I don’t believe you need to set up multiple companies but you may want to speak to an expert to make sure.

        • Great feedback…

          I searched online, and found some very interesting information at the somersoft forum.

          The advice is from circa 2004, but is still relevant I guess. One of the most respected contributors appears to be either a lawyer or accountant and has seen cases where lawsuits are filed due to accidents at the rental properties owned by a trust, and that all the trust’s assets are liable to claim against, whether that is other properties or shares. This is definitely the worst case scenario. So the advice is, in order to partially mitigate risk, to limit each individual trust to a size of $1-2m each. Additionally, the opinion is to keep asset classes separate. Shares are seen as very safe, in the sense that there is hardly any grounds that a trust that just owns shares could end up in a lawsuit. Therefore keep one trust for properties, and a separate trust for shares.

          • Yeah a trust per 1-2 Mil sounds reasonable. By that stage, you’re definitely making enough $$$ to cover it.

            Your comment was flagged as SPAM ps (must have been the link).

            Sorry if you thought I didn’t approve it.


      • Niv,

        I believe multiple trusts can have the same trustee, although there may asset protection reasons not to. I have separate company trustees due to one of them being a trading company, i.e. actually running a business. The company is a minor cost compared to the trust deeds.

        Multiple trusts can distribute to the same corporate trustee. It is no different to having multiple trusts distributing to the same charity.

  6. Thank you for this article, Firebug! Really interesting to learn about trusts and ways of structuring them. I know this is definitely something that we will set up but I’m not sure I have a strong enough understanding of all the ins and outs to take the plunge just yet. A few questions I have are:

    -When and how does a trust decide who the beneficiaries will be for that year?

    – From a tax minimasation perspective, does the advsanatge of a trust solely rely on how many kids you have and whether your spouse is earning low/no income? Which I guess brings us to the question about using a company as a beneficiary.

    – What is the benefit of having a company as a beneficiary of the trust? I understand that conmpanies get taxed at 30% but once the company distributes income to its directors, how will this income be taxed?

    Thanks again, Firebug! Love reading your posts mate!

    • No worries mate. Glad you enjoyed it.

      1. If the trust has income to distribute for that financial year. It can be distributed to any beneficiary that is named in the trust deed. Mine is written in a way that it can be all my family, extended family and friends. Basically anyone really.

      2. No. Kids help slightly. But you can distribute to most people. The flexibility is great and if you’re in a position to take advantage of it then great. If not, then you’re not at a disadvantage, just distribute it to yourself.

      3. You don’t distribute it back to yourself once it has been taxed at the 30% rate. Once you have claimed the 30% rate and the money is sitting in the company. You then reinvest that money back into the trust through a loan (from the company to the trust). This is exact what would happen if you wanted to reinvest dividends (for example). They get distributed to you at your tax rate, and then you buy more shares with your dividend money. The difference is that the tax rate is capped at 30% for the company. This strategy works phenomenally in the later years of FIRE when your trust is generating a decent amount of cash flow.

      The trust structure works great in the later years. You will be worse off (because of fees) at the start. Read Trust Magic by Dale Gatherum. He explains this stuff heaps better than I can.

      • Hi Mr FireBug,

        Great article and nice work on your journey this far- very inspiring!

        Thanks for laying it all out. Hypothetically, if someone owned shares through their trust and opted for a automatic dividend reinvesting program, how would they realise the dividends (actually distribute them to a person)? Could you just track the earnings and ‘allocate’ them to one of the beneficiaries before FY end?

        Or would you have to get dividends paid into your trust account, then transfer to your lower income spouses account (to show the actual allocation), then transfer back into the trust account as a ‘gift/loan?’ and then reinvest?

        And is it the same story for franking credits? They can be distributed to a beneficiary of your choice? You just make that call when you do your tax return?


        • Hey,

          That’s a good question because the money never actually hit the account. I know that you’re still going to have to distribute it even if you have DRP turned on. I have not had to do this yet but my guess is (and please be aware that I’m far from an accountant) you would either have to turn DRP off or have it turned on but record the distribution in the trust register/minutes.

          Once the distribution has been made, that person or company can ‘loan’ that money back to the trust for reinvestment.

          Franking credits is an interesting one. I believe that they come with the dividend itself so whoever is distributed the dividend would receive the franking credits.

          But please check with your accountant to make sure.

  7. A lot of good points here, and some ideas I had not fully considered. Adam’s comments re asset protection have got me reviewing my trusts. However there are 2 important points which are missing, especially with respect to property.

    1. Land Tax.
    The state based land tax is applied to trusts differently to individuals.
    In the case of NSW a trust incurs land tax from the first $1 of value, whereas an individual does not incur land tax unless the total value of the land exceeds a threshold (%500k from memory, but don’t quote me on that).
    In Vic a trust does have a land tax threshold, but it is far lower than for individuals.
    The QLD threshold for trusts is not so bad, although it is still lower than for individuals.
    I have not checked other states. I have a QLD property in trust, but would not put a NSW property in trust due to the extra costs.

    2. (potential) new foreign investment / international laundering laws.
    The federal government is planning to introduce new laws which will see trusts taxed at the top tax bracket if _any_ *possible* beneficiary is not an Australian tax resident, regardless of how the income is distributed. Considering how broadly most trust deeds are currently written, this will catch most existing trusts, e.g. do you specify that company beneficiaries must be Australian companies? What about if a relative changes country? Amending the deed must be done properly or it can cause the trust to effectively restart. The government has been too busy working out who is eligible to be in government to actually debate this change, but it is likely to happen some time next year. Will it affect all trust assets or just property? We do not know yet.

    The point to note is that both levels of government like to tinker with the laws and trusts are an easy target since “they are only used by the wealthy”.

    • Great points Moragus.

      I have properties in Vic and Queensland so I have not had to deal with the land tax issues that NSW trust investors have. But they are worth knowing about for sure.

      To your point about the government tinkering with trusts… While they definitely could do this, I’m betting on them not going near it for the reasons that you mentioned. Trusts are used by the rich and powerful. Politicians are puppets for the rich and powerful. They will never pass law that makes themselves and/or there lobbyists worse off.

      Hey I could be wrong, and part of me thinks it is unfair how the only the privileged people who can afford trusts can benefit from them while the every day tax payer is stuck. But I have to take advantage of what’s offered to me and history has shown that politicians look out for themselves first *cough*negative gearing*cough* even when it’s not the best policy to do so.

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